On the center-type cylindrical grinder (Figure L-110), the workpiece is mounted between centers much as it would be in the lathe. The plain cylindrical grinder (Figure L-111) has a fixed wheelhead that cannot be swiveled, only moved toward or away from the center axis of the workpiece. The table can be swiveled to permit the grinding of tapered workpieces.
On the universal cylindrical grinder (Figure L-112), both the wheelhead and table may be swiveled for taper grinding. All possible motions are illustrated in Figure L-113.

L-110 L-111 L-112 L-113
Major Parts of the Universal Center-Type Cylindrical Grinder Major parts of the machine include the bed, slide, swivel table, headstock, footstock, and wheelhead.
Bed The bed is the main structural component and is responsible for the rigidity of the machine tool. The bed supports the slide, which in turn supports the swivel table.

Slide and Swivel Table The slide carries the swivel table and provides the traverse motion to carry the workpiece past the wheel. The swivel table is mounted on the slide and supports the headstock and footstocks. The swivel table has graduations for establishing taper angles.

Headstock The headstock (Figure L-114) mounts on the swivel table and is used to support one end of the workpiece.
The headstock also provides the rotating motion for the workpiece. The headstock spindle is typically designed to accept a chuck or face plate. The headstock center is used when workpieces are mounted between centers. Variable headstock spindle speed selection is also available. For the most precise cylindrical grinding, the headstock center is held stationary while the driving plate that rotates the part rotates concentric to the dead center. This procedure eliminates the possibility of duplicating headstock bearing irregularities into the workpiece. For parts that can tolerate minor runout errors, it is preferable to have the center turn with the driving plate.

Footstock The footstock (Figure L-115) is also mounted on the swivel table and supports the opposite end of a workpiece mounted between centers. The footstock center does not rotate. It is spring loaded and retracted by a lever.
This permits easy installation and removal of the workpiece.Compression loading on the spring is adjustable, and the footstock spindle typically can be locked after it is adjusted.
Figure L-115 Typical footstock. The lever on top of the footstock retracts the work center so that the workpiece can be mounted on the grinder. The spring (right end of sketch) provides tension to hold the workpiece in place.
The footstock assembly is positioned on the swivel table at whatever distance is needed to accommodate the length of
the workpiece.
Wheelhead The wheelhead, located at the back of the machine, contains the spindle, bearings, drive, and main motor.

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